Yes, being created by God, means that we belong to God, and if others mistreat us, they are answerable to God. However, the Bible makes clear that this goes far beyond the right not to be murdered.
First, it means that no human being has an inherent right to rule over others. God makes clear to the Israelites (Deuteronomy 17 and I Samuel 8) that only God is supposed to be their king. Their insistence on having a king, just like the other nations, is an affront to God, showing that they don't really want God to be their king. Samuel tries to warn them that if they have a king, they will be subjecting themselves to a condition of slavery that God never meant them to be in.
So then, we have a right not to be murdered. We have a right not to be subject to an absolute ruler. We can expand that: We have a right not to be subject to an aristocracy. We have a right not to be subject to a plutocracy (rule by the wealthy). We have a right not to subject to what we can call "corporatocracy" (or what Mussolini called "fascism").
What did God intend for us? Probably, God intended that we be in a loving, personal relationship with God, submitted to God, and therefore in a loving relationship with all other human beings. However, since we are not in such a relationship with God, we are obviously not in such a relationship with others.
Since we are not perfect, it is unlikely that any government by us will be perfect. But it seems that the government that will be the least bad, would be some sort of democracy, where each of us will have some say in how we are ruled. Then whatever image of God we carry within us, that originally meant that we shared in ruling this planet, we will be able to exercise in that government.
There are basic, essential things that God required of all governments. We will get to that next time.